But by the 1980s the world was waking up to the Japanese management style. There was huge interest in their ringi system (consultative papers); gyosei (group working); zen (dhyaan, meditativeness); kanban (JIT, just in time); 5S, etc. Europeans kept denying the need for management training. They believed technology and common sense would be enough. They were wrong. Now, there is some awareness of a European management style, with finer variations of German, Italian and other national styles.
Indian management style’s evolution was blocked by colonial rule; and for another 50 years by the licence-permit raj. There are distinct Indian management traditions dating from the times of the Mauryas and Mughals. Vidura Neeti from the Mahabharata, Kautilya’s Artha Shastra and other texts contain many relevant ideas on administration, leadership, strategies and systems. India’s great strength has been entrepreneurship. But it still suffers from governance gaps.